Viral Infections and Ozone Therapy

Hepatitis Treatment

Hepatitis treatment is one of the most important areas of ozone therapy. In this case, the therapeutic effect of ozone occurs through its direct impact on the virus and indirectly through its immunomodulatory activity. Ozone therapy is effective in all types of viral hepatitis (A, B, C), especially in chronic forms.

Ozone acts on the polypeptide chains on the virus membrane, making it impossible for them to adhere to target cells (hepatocytes). Additionally, it alters the activity of the reverse transcriptase enzyme involved in the synthesis of virus proteins, thereby blocking the virus replication cycle (Freberg, Carpendale, 1988). Capsulated viruses, containing more lipids that easily interact with ozone, are more susceptible to its effects.

Antalya Viral Infection Treatment

The additional peroxide generated by ozone intensifies reduced cell phagocytic activity in hepatitis cases. The ozone-oxygen gas mixture activates both cellular and humoral immunity. Ozone therapy in Antalya stimulates the formation of cytokines, including interferon, a crucial factor in the body's endogenous defense against viral infections. This leads to an increase in T-killer cell production, responsible for the normalization of the function of T-helper cells that regulate B lymphocytes, ultimately suppressing and eliminating the inflammatory process.

Ozone reduces platelet aggregation, preventing the development of secondary reactive inflammation (micronecrosis and microthrombosis). It increases fibrinolytic activity and hypocoagulation in the blood, positively affecting hemostasis. Ozone enhances the elasticity and deformability of red blood cells, improving oxygen transport function, microcirculation, and tissue oxygenation. It eliminates the imbalance between oxidative free radical processes and endogenous antioxidant synthesis.

For chronic hepatitis, the preferred treatment method is ozone major autohemotherapy with high ozone concentration. The initial application involves a dose of 500 mcg of ozone in 100 ml of blood with a gas mixture containing 5000 mcg/L of ozone (trial application). Subsequent applications gradually increase the ozone dose to 700 mcg in 100 ml of blood, with the ozone concentration in the gas mixture raised to 7000-10000 mcg/L (approximately 6-8 applications every other day). After achieving a reduction in transaminase levels and stabilizing antioxidant levels, the ozone dose is reduced to 700-500 mcg in 100 ml of blood and the ozone concentration in the gas mixture to 7000-5000 mcg/L (one application per week).

In milder cases of hepatitis, ozone therapy involves a 10-12 day course of intravenous infusion of 400 ml of physiological saline ozonated at a concentration of 1600-2000 mcg/L.

Another treatment method is rectal ozone insufflation performed every two days for a total of 10-15 insufflations. The recommended ozone concentration is 5000-10000 mcg/L in a volume of 300-500 ml (ozone dose - 1500-3000-5000 mcg). After 2-3 applications, patients report subjective improvements in their overall condition, appetite, sleep, itching, and a reduction in discomfort and pain in the right hypochondrial region, along with increased motivation.

After a treatment course, positive developments occur in biochemical and immunological indices of blood, with a disappearance of viremia in 60% of patients (A.V. Zmyzglova, N.P. Isaeva, 1998). Inhibiting lipid peroxidation processes and activating the body's antioxidant defense system result in improved systemic and intrahepatic microcirculation parameters according to reohepatography and biomicroscopy data (V.V. Nedogoda, O.Yu. Sviridenko, 2000). The treatment is well-tolerated by patients, with no observed aggravation or complications.

The use of ozone can be extended up to 1-2 months, with applications performed 1-2 times per week. Ozone therapy in hepatitis can be used as a complementary or monotherapy, but the use of antioxidants is necessary. Hepatitis C and Ozone Therapy HCV is a disease with rapidly increasing global prevalence, posing a significant public health concern due to its high adaptability and pathogenicity. The recognition of the hepatitis virus dates back to the 1970s, while Hepatitis C was identified in 1989. The world's population, migrations, and travels have rapidly increased the demographic and geographic distribution of the Hepatitis C virus.

HCV particles consist of a nucleocapsid and a single RNA. With 9600 nucleotides, it has a protein envelope. HCV exhibits genotypic flexibility, and its lipid structure is composed of 60% phospholipids and the remainder cholesterol, with approximately 100 subgroups. The virus primarily targets hepatocytes (liver cells) for its viral life, but it can also affect bone marrow, kidney cells, macrophages, lymphocytes, and granulocytes. Once inside a cell, the virus sheds its envelope, binds to ribosomes, and initiates the viral polymerase RNA replication cycle, producing around 10 billion virions per day. These virions circulate in the bloodstream and lymphatic system, reinfecting new cells and previously infected ones. HCV RNA can be detected using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and a PCR result can be positive if there are more than 10 million virions per milliliter.

Clinical and laboratory manifestations of hepatitis are rarely detected during the acute phase of HCV and can be challenging to capture. Most cases become chronic, with an incubation period of six weeks. Symptoms may include fatigue, headaches, loss of appetite, and mild abdominal pain, occurring before the onset of jaundice, which typically lasts 2-12 days. The icteric period is marked by the beginning of jaundice and darkening of urine. In the recovery phase, symptoms subside.

In chronic hepatitis, elevated HCV RNA and liver enzyme levels persist for six months or longer. Patients may be asymptomatic or experience a return of symptoms, sometimes in the form of acute exacerbations. Serological and virological studies are used to differentiate Hepatitis C from other viral hepatic infections. Liver enzymes, including ALT, AST, GGT, ALP, bilirubin, prothrombin time, and platelets, may be affected. Cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma can develop in 20-25% of patients within 20 years, while 10% of patients can achieve complete recovery. Current treatments involve interferon and ribavirin, each with various side effects.

Hepatitis C and Ozone Treatment

Ozone is a potent oxidant that, when administered in increasing doses into the bloodstream, affects various blood cells. Leukocytes and platelets are resistant to oxidative stress. Ozone's antiviral activities have recently been discovered, showing its ability to break down the lipid envelope of viruses. The most sensitive viruses include HCV, Herpes 1 and 2, and HIV 1 and 2. Recent studies have demonstrated a decrease in HCV viral load, improvement in hepatic enzymes, and overall patient health with ozone therapy. Major Autohemotherapy (MAHT) is technically recommended.